2014.07_Martin - 한국의 협동조합운동에 대한 몇가지 실용적 조언


한국의 협동조합운동에 대한  몇가지 실용적 조언


저는 합동워크숍   초청되어 협동조합운동과 사회적 경제개발에 관심을 가지고 있는 청중 여러분들께 강연을  적이 있습니다.

강연에 계셨던 몇몇 분들께서는 이미 자신만의 협동조합을 꾸려나가기 시작하신 분들도 있고,  다른 분들께서는 협동조합을 시작하기 위한 구성을 하고 계시는 분들도 계시다고 들어 알고 있습니다.


이렇게 협동조합을 준비하시는, 혹은 이미 협동조합인이 되신 분들은 매우 긍정적인 에너지와 열정, 헌신으로 협동조합 활성화를 위해 노력하고 계시는  같습니다. 이러한 분위기 속에서 탄생하는 협동조합들은 대한민국이 마주하고 있는 노동, 사회적 상황을 바꿀  있는 해답이   있을 것이라고 생각합니다.


한편으로는 몬드라곤 협동조합 그룹과 유사한 협동조합을 구축하기 위한 이러한관심과 열정이 과연 성공적인 결과로 이루어   있을지 궁금한 마음도 듭니다무엇보다 먼저,  몇몇 협동조합들이 협동조합으로서 실패했는지에 대해 알아야 것입니다. 그리고  점에 대해 알아보기 위해서는 경제적 측면에서의 패인과협동조합 측면에서의 패인을 구분짓는 작업이 선행되어야 합니다

경제적 측면에서의 실패는 협동조합이 사업 주체로서 시장에서 경쟁력을 확보할 없는 상황을 말하는 것입니다.


협동조합적 실패는 협동조합으로서의 가치와 원칙을 실현시키지 못한 채로 사업을진행하는 것을 말합니다. 사업은 지속될  있을지 모르나 협동조합의 가치와 원칙은 체화되는 것이 아니라 명문화된 것으로만 남게   우리는 이를 협동조합적실패라   있습니다.


물론, 완벽한 경제체제가 없듯 완벽한 협동조합도 존재하지 않습니다. 실패의 요인은 모든 협동조합 안에 내재되어 있으며 문제는 이것에 대해 얼마나 자각하고 있느냐는 것입니다.


이러한 실패 요인을 구분해 내기 위해서는 협동조합의 본질에 대해 파악하는 것이중요합니다. 물론, 협동조합의 실패에 대해 이해하기 위해서는 어떤 것이 실패의요인인지에 대해 파악하는 것이 선행되어야  것이며,  요인이 협동조합의 본질과 어떤 관련이 있는지에 대해 알아야  것입니다.


협동조합의 실패는 교육 과정과 의사결정의 오류에서 비롯됩니다. 의사결정은 안건이 협동조합적 가치에 부합하는지에 대한 판단 과정을 뜻하며, 교육 과정은 협동조합적 관점에서 행해지는 과정을 뜻합니다.


우리가 이러한 협동조합적 실패의 본질에 대해  이해할  있다면, 이러한 실패를 저지르는 것을 피할  있을 것입니다. 그러므로 여러분들은 조직 내부에서 성취해  것들에만 시야를 국한시켜서는   것입니다. 여러분들이 구축해  모범적이고 확고한 사업을 더욱더 강화시키고 개선시키는 것을 멈추지 마십시오.


하지만, 상기에 언급된  외의 부분에서도 동기부여가 필요하며 희망을 가져다  있는 변화의 국면을 향한 협력을 위한 효율적인 수단이 필요합니다. 하지만 현재의 사회-정치적 구조는 안타깝게도 희망을 짓밟고 위협요소를 키우고 있는 것처럼 보이는 것이 사실입니다.


협동조합의 도약을 위해서는 여태까지 이루어  필수적이고 긍정적인 일들 외에도, 향후  미래지향적인 태도를 유지해야 한다는 것을 잊지 말아야  것입니다. 이러한 이유로 여러분들은 협동의 새로운 형태를 발명해내야  것입니다. 격언에따르면 나무에  가지가 돋아나오면 뿌리는 깊고  몸통은 강하다.’라는 말이 있습니다.  격언은 협동조합 생태계에도 그대로 적용될  있는 말입니다. 협동의새로운 형태는 연대정신과 인터코퍼레이션에 입각한 협동조합 그룹을 만들어 협동조합 간의 유대를 강화시키는 것에서 비롯될  있을 것입니다. 실용적인 해결책을만들어내는 , 지식과 노하우를  사람에게 집중시키는 대신 공유하고 전파시키는 것을 통해 지역사회를 더욱더 윤택하게 만드는 것이 바로 여러분의 향후 과제가 것입니다.


합동워크숍 참석하신 여러분들은 농업 진흥부터 노숙자 주택 공급까지, 그리고사회적 협동조합에서부터 나눔까지 여러 분야에서 값진 경험들을 하셨습니다. 하지만 이러한 경험들이 전부라고 말할 수는 없을 것입니다. 그럼에도  경험들은 자체로 값지며 많은 것들에 도전하고 있습니다. 그리고 앞으로도 그럴 것입니다! 하지만 모든 도전들은 통합적이어야 합니다. 저는 그것을 위해 여러분들께 가지 실용적인 조언을  드리고 싶습니다.


첫째, 협동조합은 지역사회의 가장 취약한 부분을 끌어올릴  있는 지렛대 역할을해야 합니다. 감성적 지지만으로는 충분하지 않습니다. 그러므로 이를 위해서는 오늘날 부족한 기회 창출을 위한 새로운 협동조합 설립을 최우선 과제로 삼아야 것입니다. 


둘째, -참고로  순서는 중요도에 따른 것은 아닙니다- 새로운 복지안-특히 경제적취약계층이 누리기 어려운 건강 관련- 제안할  있는 능동적인 리더가 되십시오.


세번째 조언은 인간의 존엄성과 사회 정의와 관련된 것입니다. 자유주의 원칙 하에서는 어떤 방법으로든 부를 창출하는 것이 옳다고 믿어집니다. 하지만 우리는 대신 모든 사회 구성원들이 최대의 역량을 발휘하는 새로운 경제체제를 구축하는법을 알고 있습니다. 일례로  명의 협동조합원은 공급자일 뿐만 아니라 근로자이기도 하며 개인적으로도, 사회적으로도 그리고 전문가로서도 성장할  있습니다. 이는 가장 이상적인 상태인 함께 일하는 체제에서 이루어질  있는 것입니다. 저는 소득을 창출하지 말아야 한다고 말하는 것이 아닙니다. 하지만 소득을 창출하는것만으로는 충분하지 않은 것도 사실입니다. 협동조합의 사업은 협동조합적 방법으로 성장해야 하며,  과정에서 모든 사람들이 관여해야  것입니다. 1더하기 1 3 됩니다. 이것이 바로 협동조합의 논리입니다.


네번째 제안은 다음과 같습니다. 우리 주위를 둘러보면 사회가 성장한다고 해서 경제가 새로워진 적은 없었습니다. 협동조합운동만이 가족의 삶을 지켜주고 더욱더윤택하게 만들어 줄 수 있습니다. 이는 양립, 어쩌면 양랍보다  나아간 일과 가정의 조화일지도 모르겠습니다.


마지막으로, 협동조합운동이 사회와 정부와 공조하는 것을 단지 머릿속의 계획으로만 그치지 않도록 하십시오. 협력의 양상은 전통적인 방식과 같지는 않겠지만,  여정은 같아야  것입니다! 사람들이 존중되지 못하고, 권리를 누리지 못하는낡고 부조리한 사회에서 손을 내미십시오협동하고, 개개인의 직업적 정체성을 준수하며 손을 잡고 함께 나아가십시오!


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PRACTICAL ENCOURAGEMENT FOR THE COOPERATIVE AND SOCIAL ENTREPRISE SECTOR IN KOREA


I have already been invited by E-COOP to attend two workshops and speak to different people who are interested in the so called cooperative movement and social economy development in Korea. Some of the attendees to these workshops have already established their businesses as cooperatives and some others are in the process of formalizing their businesses as cooperatives.

The general atmosphere among these people is very favorable since there is much energy, desire, passion and commitment to go forward in the path of establishing cooperative companies. These companies are the search to establish new structures that can give an answer to the current labor and social situation in the Republic of South Korea.

On the other hand, there is great interest and desire to set up a group of cooperatives, similar to the Spanish Cooperative Group of Mondragon. Will this Korean Cooperative group be successful?.

Before setting a group of cooperatives we should focus on each cooperative. First of all it’s important to understand why some cooperatives fail as cooperatives. In addressing this, it is necessary to differentiate between economic and co-operative failure.

Economic failure is when a cooperative fails as an ongoing and viable business – it is unable to compete, generate profits and survive as a business.

Cooperative failure is when a cooperative ceases to practice cooperative values and principles irrespective of its economic viability. The business may continue to operate and generate profits but its adherence to cooperative values and principles has become legalistic and token.

Of course, there is no such thing as a perfect cooperative- as there is no such thing as a perfect economy. The ingredients of failure exist in all cooperatives and what matters is how cooperatives recognize this on an ongoing basis.

To identify the ingredients of failure, it is necessary to be clear about what is the nature of a co-operative. Obviously, to understand co-operative failure it is necessary to understand what is being failed, what constitutes the nature of a cooperative.

The starting point for cooperative failure lies in the formation decision and the formation process. The formation decision is when a decision is being made about whether or not to from a cooperative. The formation process is the process undertaken to form a co-operative.

If we are able to understand cooperative failure beforehand then we will be able to avoid such failure. Therefore, do not stop to look only at what you have been able to achieve in your organizations. Continue to refine, to strengthen and to update the good and solid business that you have already built.

Therefore, do not stop to look only at what you have been able to achieve. Continue to refine, to strengthen and to update the good and solid businesses that you have already built. However, also have the courage to move outside of them, charged with experience and good methods, to carry cooperation to the new frontiers of change, to the existential peripheries where hope needs to emerge and where, unfortunately, the current socio-political system instead seems fatally destined to suffocate hope, to steal hope, increasing risks and threats.

This great leap forward which we propose the cooperatives take, will give you the confirmation that all that you have already done is not only positive and vital, but also continues to be prophetic. For this reason you must continue to invent — this is the word: invent — new forms of cooperation, because the maxim, “when a tree has new branches, the roots are deep and the trunk is strong”, also applies to cooperatives. A new form of cooperation could be establishing a group of cooperatives in which cooperative principles such as Solidarity and Intercooperation can play a great role to strengthen the power of cooperatives. This is your mission; it is your task to invent practical solutions, to make this network function in the actual situations of your local communities, starting from your history, with your wealth of knowledge in order to carry out this endeavor and at the same time not to forget that the person is at the centre of it all.

The attendees to E-COOP workshop represent valuable experience in many sectors: from agricultural development to the promotion of building new homes for the homeless, from social cooperatives to distribution and many other types of service. I am well aware that this list is incomplete, but it is rather useful in order to understand how precious the cooperative method is, which must go forward, creative. It has revealed itself in the face of many challenges. And it still will! However, all appreciation and all encouragement instead risks being generic. I want to offer you some practical encouragement instead.

The first is this: cooperatives must continue to be the motor that lifts and develops the weakest part of your local community and of civil society. Sentiment is not capable of this. Thus it is necessary to give first priority to the foundation of new cooperative enterprises, along with the further development of those in existence, especially in order to create new employment opportunities, which are lacking today.

A second point of encouragement— not in order of importance — is to become active as leaders in creating new welfare solutions, particularly in the field of healthcare, a delicate field where so many poor people do not find adequate responses to their needs. 

The third point of encouragement is in regard to the economy, its relationship to social justice, to the dignity and value of people. It is well known that certain liberalism believes it is necessary to first produce wealth, no matter how, to then promote some policy of redistribution by the State. Instead we know that establishing a new quality of economy will enable people to grow to their full potential. For example: a member of the cooperative must not be only a supplier, a worker, a well-treated user; he must always be a protagonist, he must grow, through the cooperative, grow personally, socially and professionally, in responsibility, in actualizing hope, in working together. I am not saying that one’s income need not increase, but that is not enough: it is important that the business managed by the cooperative truly grow in a cooperative way, that is by involving everyone. One plus one makes three! This is the logic.

The fourth suggestion is this: if we look around us it never happens that the economy is renewed in a society that is aging and growing. The cooperative movement can play an important role in sustaining, facilitating and also encouraging the life of families; this is reconciliation, or better perhaps, harmonization between work and family.

Last, do not allow the cooperative movement’s cooperation with your social and governmental systems to live only in your memory. The forms of cooperation need to be different from the original forms, but the journey must always be the same! Where there are old and new existential peripheries, where people are underprivileged, where people are alone and discarded, where people are disrespected, extend a hand to them! Cooperate together, in accordance with each one’s vocational identity, holding hands!

Prof: Martin

HBM

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